傳統鏡頭濾鏡

原文:https://photographylife.com/lens-filters-explained
作者:Nasim Mansurov

Camera lens filters can serve different purposes in digital photography. They can be indispensable for capturing scenery in extremely difficult lighting conditions, they can enhance colors and reduce reflections or can simply protect lenses. Filters are widely used in photography and cinematography and while some only use filters in rare situations, others rely on filters for their everyday work. For example, landscape photographers heavily rely on various filters, while street and portrait photographers rarely get to use them. Since digital photography is all about the quality and intensity of light, lens filters are often necessary to modify the light before it enters the lens. Many photographers think that some of the built-in tools in Lightroom and Photoshop can simulate filter behavior, making filters redundant in the digital age. As I will demonstrate below, some filters in fact can never be simulated in software and some actually help in getting even better results during post-processing. In this article, I will talk about the different types of lens filters available, what they do, when and how to use them.
相機鏡頭濾鏡可用於數碼攝影中的不同目的。它們對於在極其困難的光照條件下拍攝風景是必不可少的,它們可以增強色彩並減少反射,或者可以簡單地保護鏡頭。濾鏡廣泛用於攝影和電影攝影,有些僅在極少數情況下使用濾鏡,有些則依靠過濾器進行日常工作。例如,風景攝影師嚴重依賴各種過濾器,而街頭和肖像攝影師很少使用它們。由於數碼攝影完全取決於光線的質量和強度,因此鏡頭濾鏡通常需要在光線進入鏡頭之前對其進行修改許多攝影師認為Lightroom和Photoshop中的一些內置工具可以模擬濾鏡行為,使得濾鏡在數字時代變得多餘。正如我將在下面演示的那樣,事實上某些過濾器永遠不能用軟件模擬,有些過濾器實際上有助於在後期處理過程中獲得更好的結果。在本文中,我將討論可用的不同類型的鏡頭濾鏡,它們的作用,何時以及如何使用它們。

Lee-Filter-Set.jpg

1) What are Filters and Why Should You Use Them?
什麼是過濾器,為什麼要使用它們?

Why do you wear sunglasses? Because along with other benefits, they help you see better in intense light, protect your eyes from harmful UV rays/wind/dust and reduce glare. Filters also serve a similar purpose – they can help reduce reflections, protect your lenses from potential damage, fully or partially reduce the amount of light that enters the lens and even enhance colors. At the same time, filters can actually hurt photographs if they are not properly used. A good analogy would be wearing sunglasses in a dark room. Therefore, not only do you need to know what filters to use, but you also need to know how to use them and in which situations. There are many different kinds of filters out there – from cheap UV filters to very expensive filters worth several hundred dollars, which can make the process of choosing the right filter type rather challenging.
你為什麼戴太陽鏡?因為除了其他好處,它們可以幫助您在強光下看得更清楚,保護您的眼睛免受有害紫外線/風/灰塵的影響,並減少眩光。濾鏡也有類似的用途 - 它們可以幫助減少反射,保護鏡片免受潛在的損壞,完全或部分減少進入鏡頭的光量,甚至增強色彩。同時,如果沒有正確使用過濾器,過濾器實際上可能會傷害照片。一個很好的比喻就是在黑暗的房間裡戴太陽鏡。因此,您不僅需要知道要使用哪些過濾器,還需要知道如何使用它們以及在哪些情況下使用它們。有許多不同類型的過濾器 - 從便宜的紫外線過濾器到價值幾百美元的非常昂貴的過濾器,這可能使選擇正確的過濾器類型的過程相當具有挑戰性。

Let’s go through the different types of filters that are available today.
讓我們來看看今天可用的不同類型的過濾器。

2) Overview of Types of Lens Filters
透鏡濾光器類型概述
Here is a list of typical lens filters you can purchase today, along with descriptions of their purposes:
以下是您今天可以購買的典型鏡頭過濾器列表,以及它們的用途說明:

Lens Filter 鏡頭濾鏡

Photography Type 攝影類型

Purpose 目的

UV/Clear/Haze Filter

UV /透明/霧度 濾鏡

Any

任何

Protects the front element of a lens from dust, dirt, moisture and potential scratches. High quality UV filters can be permanently mounted on lenses with a minimum impact on image quality.

保護鏡頭前部元件免受灰塵,污垢,濕氣和潛在划痕的影響。高質量的紫外線過濾器可永久安裝在鏡頭上,對圖像質量的影響最小。

Polarizing Filter

偏光 濾鏡

Any

任何

Filters out polarized light, dramatically reducing reflections, enhancing colors and increasing contrast. Can be used for any type of photography. Polarizing filters are typically circular, allowing for easy control of the effect of polarization.

可以濾除偏振光,顯著減少反射,增強色彩和增加對比度。可用於任何類型的攝影。偏振濾光器通常是圓形的,允許容易地控制偏振的影響。

Neutral Density (ND) Filter

中性密度(ND) 濾鏡

Landscape, Flash Photography

風景攝影,閃光燈拍攝

Reduces the amount of light entering the lens, thus decreasing camera shutter speed. Useful for situations where motion blur needs to be created (rivers, waterfalls, moving people) or large apertures must be used with flash to avoid overexposure.

減少進入鏡頭的光線量,從而降低相機快門速度。適用於需要創建運動模糊(河流,瀑布,移動的人)或大光圈必須與閃光燈一起使用以避免過度曝光的情況。

Hard-Edge Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter

硬邊漸變中性密度(GND)濾鏡

Landscape Photography

風景攝影

Hard-edge GND filters are primarily used in high contrast situations, where the sky is much brighter than the foreground and the horizon is flat. These filters are always rectangular (giving the ability to move them in all directions) and are typically used with filter holders.

硬邊GND濾鏡主要用於高對比度情況,其中天空比前景亮得多,地平線也是平坦的。這些過濾器始終是矩形的(能夠在所有方向上移動它們)並且通常與過濾器支架一起使用。

Soft-Edge Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter

軟邊緣漸變中性密度(GND)濾鏡

Landscape Photography

風景攝影

Soft-edge GND filters are also used in high contrast situations, but where the horizon is not necessarily flat. The soft edge allows for smoother transitions, making the use of a filter less evident. Soft-edge GND filters are also rectangular and are normally used with filter holders.

軟邊緣GND濾鏡也用於高對比度情況,但地平線不一定是平坦的。軟邊緣允許更平滑的過渡,使得過濾器的使用不那麼明顯。軟邊GND濾波器也是矩形的,通常與濾波器支架一起使用。

Reverse Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter

反向漸變中性密度(GND)濾鏡

Landscape Photography

風景攝影

The reverse GND is a specialized filter used by landscape photographers when shooting against the sun while it is setting close to the horizon. While a regular GND filter gradually transitions from dark to clear towards the center, a reverse GND filter transitions from dark to less dark from the center to the edge.

反向GND是風景攝影師在靠近地平線時對太陽拍攝時使用的專用濾鏡。當常規GND濾波器逐漸從暗到中心過渡時,反向GND濾波器從中心到邊緣從暗到暗變換。

Color/Warming/Cooling Filter

顏色/暖色/冷卻濾鏡

Any

任何

Corrects colors, resulting in a change in camera white balance. Some color filters can subtract colors, blocking one type of color and allowing other colors through. These types of filters were popular for film. They are rarely used in digital photography, since their effects can be easily applied in post-processing.

校正顏色,導致相機白平衡發生變化。某些濾色鏡可以減去顏色,阻擋一種顏色並允許其他顏色通過。這些類型的濾鏡在電影中很受歡迎。它們很少用於數碼攝影,因為它們的效果可以很容易地應用於後期處理。

Close-Up Filter

近攝濾鏡

Macro Photography

微距攝影

Also known as “diopter”, a close-up filter allows a lens to focus closer on subjects. These filters are only used for macro photography.

也稱為“屈光度”,近攝濾鏡可使鏡頭更近距離對焦。這些濾鏡僅用於微距拍攝。

Special Effects Filter

特效濾鏡

Any

任何

There are a few different types of special effects filters. Star filters make bright objects look star-like; softening/diffusion filters create a “dreamy” look used for portraits, multivision filters create multiple copies of a subject; infrared filters block infrared and pass visible light; bokeh filters have a certain shape cut in the middle of the filter that makes bokeh highlights have the same shape, etc.

有幾種不同類型的特效濾鏡。星形過濾器使明亮的物體看起來像星形; 柔化/擴散濾鏡創造了一種用於肖像的“夢幻”外觀,多畫面濾鏡創建了一個主題的多個副本; 紅外濾鏡阻擋紅外線並通過可見光;散景濾鏡在濾鏡中間切割出一定形狀,使散景高光具有相同的形狀等。

3) Types of Lens Filters
鏡頭濾鏡的類型

Lens filters come in different shapes and forms, as shown below. The most popular lens filters are circular, screw-on filters. Those mount directly onto the filter thread in front of a lens. They come in different sizes, depending on the lens filter thread. The standard and the most common size of screw-on filters for professional lenses is 77mm.
鏡頭濾鏡有不同的形狀和形式,如下所示。最流行的鏡頭濾鏡是圓形螺旋濾鏡。它們直接安裝在鏡頭前的濾網上。它們有不同的尺寸,具體取決於鏡頭濾鏡螺紋。專業鏡頭的標準和最常見的旋入式過濾器尺寸為77毫米。

Types of Lens Filters:
鏡頭濾鏡的類型:

  1. Circular screw-on filters – most common type that mounts directly on the lens filter thread. Examples of circular screw-on filters include UV/Clear/Haze filters, circular polarizers, neutral density and color filters. Circular filters also come in different thicknesses – some are thick that can potentially add vignetting, while others are ultra-thin to diminish vignetting, but make it impossible to put a lens cap.
    圓形螺紋過濾器 - 最常見的類型,直接安裝在鏡頭過濾器螺紋上。圓形螺旋式過濾器的實例包括UV /透明/霧度過濾器,圓形偏振器,中性密度和濾色器。圓形濾光片也有不同的厚度 - 有些厚度可能會增加暈影,而有些則超薄以減少漸暈,但卻無法放置鏡頭蓋。
  2. Square filters – a popular choice for landscape and other photography. A filter holder directly attaches to the lens filter thread and can hold one or more filters. The most popular sizes are 3×3 and 4×4. Can be stacked together in certain situations, which can negatively impact image quality and add reflections.
    方形濾鏡 - 景觀和其他攝影的熱門選擇。過濾器支架直接連接到鏡片過濾器螺紋並且可以保持一個或多個過濾器。最流行的尺寸是3×3和4×4。可以在某些情況下堆疊在一起,這可能會對圖像質量產生負面影響並增加反射。
  3. Rectangular filters – another popular choice, primarily among landscape photographers. Mounted just like square filters via a filter holder system. Because it is impractical for graduated neutral density filters to be circular (due to different sizes of high-contrast areas and composition), rectangular filters are the primary choice for landscape photography. Unlike square filters, they have more room to move up and down. The most popular size is 4×6, although larger and smaller filter sizes are also available.
    矩形濾鏡 - 另一種流行的選擇,主要是風景攝影師。通過過濾器支架系統安裝就像方形過濾器一樣。由於漸變中性密度濾光片是圓形的(由於高對比度區域和成分的不同尺寸)是不切實際的,因此矩形濾光片是風景攝影的主要選擇。與方形濾鏡不同,它們有更大的上下移動空間。最流行的尺寸是4×6,但也可以使用更大和更小的過濾器尺寸。
  4. Drop-in filters – these filters are used inside long telephoto lenses, due to the large size of the front lens element. Only clear and polarizing filters are used for drop-in filters.
    插入式濾鏡 - 由於前置鏡頭元件的尺寸較大,這些濾鏡用於長焦遠鏡頭內。只有透明和偏振濾光片用於插入式濾光片。

4) Lens Filters Explained in Detail
濾鏡濾鏡詳細說明

Let me go through each filter type in detail and show the effects they produce in pictures (where applicable). It is often too difficult to understand what each filter does and decide on whether you need it or not, so I hope the below information will make it easier for you to decide whether you want a particular type of filter or not.
讓我詳細介紹每種過濾器類型,並顯示它們在圖片中產生的效果(如果適用)。 通常很難理解每個過濾器的作用並決定是否需要它,因此我希望以下信息可以讓您更輕鬆地決定是否需要特定類型的過濾器。

4.1) UV/Clear/Haze Filter
UV /透明/霧度過濾器

B+W-UV-Haze-MRC-Filter.jpg

The purpose of a UV / Clear / Haze filters today is to simply protect the front element of a lens. In the past, these filters were used to block UV from hitting the film. All digital camera sensors have a UV/IR filter in front of the sensor, so there is no more need to use UV filters on DSLRs. Many photographers use these types of filters for protection, because it is easier and cheaper to replace a filter than to try to repair a scratched or broken lens element. I personally prefer to keep a clear filter on my lenses at all times, because they are easier to clean.
今天紫外/透明/霧度過濾器的目的是簡單地保護鏡頭的前部元件。過去,這些過濾器用於阻止紫外線撞擊薄膜。所有數碼相機傳感器都在傳感器前面安裝了紫外/紅外濾光片,因此不再需要在數碼單反相機上使用紫外線濾鏡。許多攝影師使用這些類型的過濾器進行保護,因為更換過濾器比嘗試修復劃傷或損壞的鏡頭元件更容易和更便宜。我個人更喜歡隨時在鏡片上保留一個透明濾鏡,因為它們更容易清潔。

One thing you have to make sure before you purchase a clear filter, is that you buy high quality glass with special multi-resistant coating (MRC). The worst thing you can do is mount a low quality filter in front of an expensive lens. Not only will it hurt image quality, but it will also add nasty reflections, ghosts and flares to your images. I personally prefer B+W F-Pro MRC filters (they are not cheap), but you can also purchase other great alternatives from Tiffen, Hoya and other manufacturers.
在購買透明過濾鏡之前,您必須確保的一件事是您購買具有特殊多重塗層(MRC)的高品質玻璃。您可以做的最糟糕的事情是在昂貴的鏡頭前安裝低質量的濾鏡。它不僅會損害圖像質量,還會為您的圖像添加令人討厭的反射,鬼影和耀斑。我個人更喜歡B + W F-Pro MRC過濾器(它們並不便宜),但你也可以從Tiffen,Hoya和其他製造商那裡購買其他很好的替代品。

Should you use a clear filter permanently on your lenses? This question brings up heated debates between photographers. Many believe that adding a piece of glass in front of lenses only hurts images and does very little to protect them, while others like me keep them for piece of mind and easier cleaning. Some lenses with threaded front elements like the Nikon 50mm f/1.4G can be painful to clean, so a clear filter would make lens maintenance less cumbersome.
您是否應該在鏡片上永久使用透明過濾器?這個問題引起了攝影師之間激烈的爭論。許多人認為,在鏡片前添加一塊玻璃只會傷害圖像,並且很少能保護它們,而像我這樣的其他人會保留它們以便更好地清潔。一些帶有螺紋前部元件的鏡頭,如尼康50mm f / 1.4G,可能會很難清潔,因此清晰的過濾器會使鏡頭維護變得不那麼麻煩。

To avoid vignetting and other problems, UV filters should never be stacked with other filters.
為避免暈影和其他問題,UV濾鏡絕不應與其他濾鏡疊放。

4.2) Polarizing Filter
偏光濾鏡

B+W-Circular-Polarizing-Filter.jpg

There are two types of polarizing filters – linear and circular. Linear polarizers should not be used on DSLR cameras, because they can result in metering errors. Circular polarizers, on the other hand, are perfect for DSLRs and do not cause any metering issues due to their construction. Circular polarizing filters are essentially linear polarizers, with a second glass element attached to their back that circularly polarizes the light, giving accurate exposure results when the light hits the light meter. When the two elements are aligned at the right handle and orientation from the sun, the captured image could have more saturated colors, bluer skies, less reflections and higher overall contrast. Polarizing filters can also reduce haze, which is very useful for landscape photographers.
B + W圓偏振濾光片有兩種類型的偏振濾光片 - 線性和圓形。線性偏振器不應用於DSLR相機,因為它們會導致測光錯誤。另一方面,圓形偏振器非常適合數碼單反相機,並且由於它們的結構不會引起任何計量問題。圓偏振濾光器本質上是線性偏振器,其背面附接有第二玻璃元件,其使光線圓偏振,當光線照射到光度計時提供精確的曝光結果。當兩個元素在右手柄和太陽方向對齊時,捕獲的圖像可以具有更飽和的顏色,更藍的天空,更少的反射和更高的整體對比度。偏光濾光片還可以降低霧度,這對於風景攝影師來說非常有用。

I never leave my home without a polarizing filter. When photographing landscapes, I often use a polarizing filter to spice up the colors, darken the sky and reduce haze. Polarizing filters are a must when photographing waterfalls or other wet scenery with vegetation.
沒有偏光濾鏡,我永遠不會離開家。在拍攝風景時,我經常使用偏振濾鏡來增加色彩,使天空變暗並減少霧霾。拍攝瀑布或植被的其他潮濕景色時,必須使用偏光濾鏡。

There are a couple of potential issues that you need to understand when using a polarizing filter:
使用偏振濾光片時,您需要了解一些潛在問題:

1. There is a minimum and a maximum effect of polarization, depending on the filter alignment. You should rotate the filter every time you compose for best results. Take a look at this example of minimum and maximum effect of polarization:
極化的最小和最大影響取決於濾波器對齊。每次構圖時都應旋轉濾鏡以獲得最佳效果。看看這個極化最小和最大影響的例子:

NIKON D700 + 24-70mm f/2.8 @ 26mm, ISO 200, 1/640, f/8.0

NIKON D700 + 24-70mm f/2.8 @ 26mm, ISO 200, 1/640, f/8.0

2. he effect of polarization changes relative to the sun. The maximum effect of polarization is achieved when the lens is pointed 90 degrees from the sun (in any direction). A simple trick is to form a pistol with your index and thumb fingers, then point your index finger at the sun. Keep pointing at the sun and rotate your hand clockwise and counter-clockwise. The maximum effect of polarization will be where your thumb points in any direction.
極化對太陽的影響。當鏡頭與太陽成90度(任何方向)時,都可以獲得最大的偏振效果。一個簡單的技巧是用食指和拇指手指形成手槍,然後將食指指向太陽。繼續指向太陽,順時針和逆時針旋轉手。極化的最大影響將是拇指指向任何方向的位置。

3. Avoid using a polarizing filter on ultra wide-angle lenses. You might end up with a partially dark sky that will be tough to fix in post-processing. Here is an example of what happens when using a polarizer on a wide-angle lens:
避免在超廣角鏡頭上使用偏光濾鏡。你可能最終得到一個部分黑暗的天空,在後期處理中難以修復。以下是在廣角鏡頭上使用偏光鏡時會發生什麼的示例:

Wide-angle-lens-polarization.jpg

4. In some cases the maximum effect of polarization can result in an unnatural-looking dark blue sky as shown below:
在某些情況下,極化的最大影響可能導致看起來不自然的深藍色天空,如下所示:

Extreme-case-of-polarization.jpg

5. There is a loss of approximately 2 stops of light when using polarizing filters, so you should watch your shutter speed when shooting with a polarizer hand-held. Singh-Ray polarizing filters are better than others in this regard and only lose around 1 stop of light.
使用偏振濾鏡時會損失約2檔光線,因此在使用手持式偏光鏡拍攝時應注意快門速度。在這方面,Singh-Ray偏振濾光片比其他濾光片更好,並且僅損失約1檔光。

6. Polarizing filters are typically thicker than regular filters and therefore can result in unwanted vignetting.
偏振濾光器通常比常規濾光器厚,因此可能導致不希望的漸暈。

To avoid vignetting, polarizing filters should not be stacked with other filters. Due to light loss, you should also use a polarizing filter only when needed. In some high-contrast situations it might be necessary to stack a polarizing filter with a neutral density filter (see below).
為避免漸暈,偏振濾光片不應與其他濾光片堆疊在一起。由於光線損失,您也應該在需要時使用偏振濾光片。在某些高對比度情況下,可能需要將偏振濾光片與中性密度濾光片疊加(見下文)。

4.3) Neutral Density (ND) Filter
中性密度(ND)過濾器

Singh-Ray-Vari-ND-Neutral-Density-Filter.jpg

Neutral Density Filter The purpose of neutral density filters is to reduce the amount of light that gets to the camera and thus decrease the shutter speed and increase exposure time. These types of filters are particularly useful in daytime, because of the abundance of light that cannot be significantly reduced by stopping down the lens aperture and decreasing ISO. For example, if you are photographing a waterfall and your starting point is ISO 100, f/2.8, 1/2000 that results in good exposure, stopping down the lens to f/22 will only slow down the shutter speed to 1/30 of a second. This would be too fast to create a “foggy” look for the falling water. By using an 8 stop neutral density filter, you could slow down the shutter speed all the way to 2 seconds while keeping lens aperture at f/11 instead of f/22 (using apertures beyond f/11-f/16 in normal lenses decreases image quality due to diffraction).
Singh-Ray Vari-ND中性密度濾光片中性密度濾光片的目的是減少進入相機的光量,從而降低快門速度並增加曝光時間。 這些類型的濾光片在白天特別有用,因為通過停止鏡頭光圈和降低ISO,無法顯著減少光線的豐富程度。 例如,如果您正在拍攝瀑布並且您的起點是ISO 100,f / 2.8,1 / 2000導致曝光良好,則將鏡頭停止到f / 22只會將快門速度減慢到1/30 一秒。 這太快了,不能為掉落的水造成“模糊”的外觀。 通過使用8檔中性密度濾鏡,您可以將快門速度一直減慢到2秒,同時將鏡頭光圈保持在f / 11而不是f / 22(使用普通鏡頭中超過f / 11-f / 16的光圈減小) 由衍射引起的圖像質量)。

NIKON D3S + 24-70mm f/2.8 @ 32mm, ISO 200, 6/1, f/9.0

NIKON D3S + 24-70mm f/2.8 @ 32mm, ISO 200, 6/1, f/9.0

Neutral density filters are also useful for flash photography. If you were photographing a model at 1/250 of a second at f/2.8 on a bright sunny day with flash to create a dramatic effect, you would most likely end up with an overexposed subject. You cannot increase the shutter speed because flash sync speed limits you to 1/250 max, so your only option is to stop down the lens aperture to a larger number. Let’s say that number is f/11. But then what if you want to isolate your subject from the background and still have nice bokeh? Without using high speed sync, your only option is to use a neutral density filter to reduce the amount of light that makes it to the camera.
中性密度濾光片也可用於閃光攝影。如果你在陽光燦爛的日子以f / 2.8拍攝模特的1/250秒,用閃光燈來創造戲劇性的效果,你很可能最終得到一個過度曝光的主題。您無法提高快門速度,因為閃光同步速度限制為最大1/250,因此您唯一的選擇是將鏡頭光圈縮小到更大的數量。假設這個數字是f / 11。但是,如果你想將你的主題與背景隔離並且仍然有很好的散景呢?在不使用高速同步的情況下,您唯一的選擇是使用中性密度濾鏡來減少進入相機的光線量。

Neutral density filters can be both circular and rectangular. There are no benefits to having a rectangular neutral density filter, so it is best to buy a circular ND filter for size and portability benefits.
中性密度濾光片可以是圓形和矩形。使用矩形中性密度濾光片沒有任何好處,因此最好購買圓形ND濾光片以獲得尺寸和便攜性的好處。

It is sometimes necessary to stack neutral density filters to decrease the shutter speed even more. Try not to stack ND filters with wide-angle lenses to avoid vignetting.
有時需要堆疊中性密度濾光片以進一步降低快門速度。盡量不要使用廣角鏡頭堆疊ND濾鏡以避免漸暈。

4.4) Neutral Density (ND) vs Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter
中性密度(ND)與刻度中性密度(GND)濾波器

Lee-Filter-Holder.jpg

The difference between neutral density and graduated neutral density filters is that the latter is half clear. Because the size of sky versus the foreground can change depending on the composition, most GND filters are made in a rectangular shape. Therefore, these filters must be either used with a filter holder system, or must be held by hand in front of a lens. The advantage of using a filter holder is that you can stack multiple filters and you do not have to worry about alignment issues. The disadvantage of using a filter holder is that it can add vignetting, so you have to be careful when using wide-angle lenses with focal lengths below 35mm.
中性密度和漸變中性密度濾光片之間的差異是後者是半透明的。因為天空與前景的大小可以根據構圖而改變,所以大多數GND濾波器都是矩形的。因此,這些過濾器必須與過濾器支架系統一起使用,或者必須用手握在鏡頭前。使用過濾器支架的優點是您可以堆疊多個過濾器,而不必擔心對齊問題。使用濾鏡支架的缺點是它可以添加漸暈,因此在使用焦距低於35mm的廣角鏡頭時必須小心。

The image above is Lee’s filter holder that can stack up to four filters at a time. I personally use this filter system for my landscape photography work and I take it with me everywhere I go. When using the filter holder on a full-frame body with my Nikon 24-70mm f/2.8G, I try to use focal lengths of 28mm and above to avoid vignetting. If you mount this filter holder on a polarizing filter, you might end up with vignetting even at 35mm and above.
上圖是Lee的過濾器支架,一次最多可堆疊四個過濾器。我個人使用這個濾鏡系統進行風景攝影工作,我隨身攜帶它。使用我的尼康24-70mm f / 2.8G的全畫幅機身上的濾鏡架時,我嘗試使用28mm及以上的焦距以避免漸暈。如果將此過濾器支架安裝在偏振濾光片上,即使在35mm及以上也可能會出現漸暈。

4.5) Hard-Edge Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter
硬邊漸變中性密度(GND)濾波器

Hard-Edge-Graduated-Neutral-Density-Filter.jpg

Hard-edge graduated neutral density filters can be very useful in high-contrast situations, where the sky is very bright compared to the foreground and the horizon is flat (due to hard transition from dark to clear). While photographing, the hard edge in the center is aligned with the horizon. The sky is then darkened depending on the intensity of the filter. A two or three stop hard-edge GND filter is often sufficient to balance the shot.
硬邊漸變中性密度濾光片硬邊漸變中性密度濾光片在高對比度情況下非常有用,其中天空與前景相比非常明亮,並且地平線是平坦的(由於從暗到暗的硬轉換)。在拍攝時,中心的硬邊與地平線對齊。然後根據過濾器的強度使天空變暗。兩個或三個停止硬邊GND濾波器通常足以平衡鏡頭。

NIKON D300 @ 38mm, ISO 200, 1/25, f/8.0

NIKON D300 @ 38mm, ISO 200, 1/25, f/8.0

Note that the horizon is straight and therefore the filter edge and transition are not visible in the image.
請注意,地平線是直的,因此濾鏡邊緣和過渡在圖像中不可見。

The problem with hard-edge GND filters is that the horizon is rarely flat (especially where I live), so soft-edge GND filters are often more useful. Be careful when stacking hard-edge GND filters in high contrast situations – both filters should be properly aligned to avoid nasty transitions.
硬邊GND濾波器的問題在於地平線很少是平坦的(尤其是我住的地方),所以軟邊GND濾波器通常更有用。在高對比度情況下堆疊硬邊GND濾波器時要小心 - 兩個濾波器應正確對齊,以避免令人討厭的過渡。

4.6) Soft-Edge Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter
軟邊漸變中性密度(GND)濾波器

Soft-Edge-Graduated-Neutral-Density-Filter.jpg

Soft-Edge Graduated Neutral Density Filter Compared to hard-edge GND filters, soft-edge graduated neutral density filters gradually transition from dark to clear, allowing photographers to use these filters when photographing a non-flat horizon. While mountains, hills and other objects above the horizon can be problematic for hard-edge GND filters, soft-edge GND filters work much better in those situations instead, due to the gradual transition. I use soft-edge GND filters for my landscape photography work a lot and find them more useful than hard-edge GND filters.
軟邊漸變中性密度濾鏡與硬邊GND濾鏡相比,軟邊漸變中性密度濾鏡逐漸從暗到高過渡,允許攝影師在拍攝非平坦的地平線時使用這些濾鏡。 雖然地形以上的山脈,丘陵和其他物體對於硬邊GND濾波器可能存在問題,但由於逐漸過渡,軟邊緣GND濾波器在這些情況下工作得更好。 我使用軟邊緣GND濾波器為我的風景攝影工作很多,並發現它們比硬邊GND濾波器更有用。

NIKON D3S + 24-70mm f/2.8 @ 38mm, ISO 200, 1/6, f/8.0 Stacking soft-edge GND filters is sometimes necessary in high-contrast and other rare situations 在高對比度和其他罕見情況下,有時需要堆疊軟邊GND濾波器

NIKON D3S + 24-70mm f/2.8 @ 38mm, ISO 200, 1/6, f/8.0
Stacking soft-edge GND filters is sometimes necessary in high-contrast and other rare situations
在高對比度和其他罕見情況下,有時需要堆疊軟邊GND濾波器

4.7) Reverse Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter
反向漸變中性密度(GND)濾波器

Reverse-Neutral-Density-Filter.jpg

Reverse Neutral Density Filter Reverse graduated neutral density filters are relatively new. When compared to regular hard/soft-edge GND filters, they are dark at the horizon (hard-edge) and gradually soften towards the top. Reverse GND filters are very useful for sunset shots when you shoot against the sun and it is near the horizon. A common problem with such sunsets, is that the sun is much brighter than the sky. If you use a hard-edge GND filter, the sky might get too dark and if you use a soft-edge GND filter, the sun will be overexposed. The solution is to use a reverse GND filter, which balances the sun and the sky in the frame, resulting in a more balanced exposure.
反向中性密度濾光片反向漸變中性密度濾光片相對較新。 與常規硬/軟邊緣GND濾波器相比,它們在地平線(硬邊緣)處較暗並且朝向頂部逐漸軟化。 當您在太陽下拍攝並且靠近地平線時,反向GND濾鏡對於日落拍攝非常有用。 這種日落的一個常見問題是太陽比天空亮得多。 如果使用硬邊GND濾波器,天空可能會變得太暗,如果使用軟邊GND濾波器,太陽將會曝光過度。 解決方案是使用反向GND濾波器,平衡幀中的太陽和天空,從而實現更均衡的曝光。

San-Francisco-Sunset-960x641.jpg

 

Stacking reverse GND filters is sometimes necessary in high-contrast and other rare situations.
在高對比度和其他罕見情況下,有時需要堆疊反向GND濾波器。

4.8) Color/Warming/Cooling Filter
顏色/加溫/冷卻過濾器

Blue-Filter.jpg

Blue Filter Color / Warming / Cooling filters are generally used to alter camera white balance. There are two types of color filters – color correction and color subtraction. The former is used for correcting white balance, while the latter is used for absorbing one color while letting other colors through. These filters were quite popular for film, but are rarely used for digital photography, since color effects and white balance changes can be easily accomplished in post-processing software like Lightroom and Photoshop. I personally do not use any color filters. Stacking color filters is also acceptable.
藍色濾鏡顏色/暖色/冷卻濾鏡通常用於改變相機白平衡。 有兩種類型的濾色鏡 - 顏色校正和顏色減法。 前者用於校正白平衡,而後者用於吸收一種顏色,同時讓其他顏色通過。 這些濾鏡在電影中非常流行,但很少用於數碼攝影,因為在Lightroom和Photoshop等後期處理軟件中可以輕鬆實現色彩效果和白平衡變化。 我個人不使用任何彩色濾光片。 堆疊濾色器也是可以接受的。

4.9) Close-Up Filter
特寫過濾器

Canon-500D-Close-Up-Filter.jpg

Canon 500D Close-Up Filter Close-up filters are generally called close-up lenses, because they are more lenses than filters. They attach to lenses just like filters, which is why I am listing them as filters. Close-up lenses are primarily used for macro photography to be able to get closer to the subject, decreasing minimum focus distance of the lens. Close-up lenses are a cheap way to convert your normal lens to a macro lens, although they do negatively affect image quality. For best results, it is recommended to use a macro lens instead. Stacking close-up filters is acceptable, although image quality is hurt even more.
佳能500D近攝濾鏡特寫濾鏡通常被稱為特寫鏡頭,因為它們比濾鏡更多。 它們像過濾器一樣附著在鏡頭上,這就是我將它們列為過濾器的原因。 近攝鏡頭主要用於微距拍攝,以便能夠更接近拍攝對象,減少鏡頭的最小焦距。 特寫鏡頭是將普通鏡頭轉換為微距鏡頭的廉價方式,儘管它們會對圖像質量產生負面影響。 為獲得最佳效果,建議使用微距鏡頭代替。 堆疊特寫過濾器是可以接受的,儘管圖像質量受到的影響更大。

4.10) Special Effects Filter
特效過濾器

B+W Soft Filter Special effects filters can produce some cool effects, but since most effects can be easily produced in Photoshop, these filters pretty much lost their popularity. Digital photographers rarely carry these filters and I personally do not use them either. The star filter can be easily created in Photoshop through a couple of steps using the “Motion Blur” filter, softening glow can also be easily done through a couple of steps with the “Gaussian Blur” filter and most other filters can also be done in Photoshop. The only filter that cannot be reproduced in Photoshop is a bokeh filter, because the highlights cannot be easily changed through post-processing techniques.
B + W軟濾鏡特效濾鏡可以產生一些很酷的效果,但由於大多數效果都可以在Photoshop中輕鬆製作,因此這些濾鏡幾乎失去了它們的受歡迎程度。 數碼攝影師很少攜帶這些濾鏡,我個人也不使用它們。 通過使用“運動模糊”濾鏡的幾個步驟,可以在Photoshop中輕鬆創建星形濾鏡,通過“高斯模糊”濾鏡可以輕鬆完成軟化發光,並且大多數其他濾鏡也可以在Photoshop中。 在Photoshop中無法再現的唯一濾鏡是散景濾鏡,因為通過後處理技術無法輕易更改高光。

Here is a 2 minute “star effect” that I created in Photoshop using very simple technique with the Motion Blur filter:
這是我使用Motion Blur過濾器使用非常簡單的技術在Photoshop中創建的2分鐘“星形效果”:

Star-Effect-in-Photoshop-960x636.jpg

5) Filter Material – Glass vs Resin Filters
過濾材料 - 玻璃與樹脂過濾器

Filters can be made from glass, plastic, resin, polyester and polycarbonate material. Glass filters are typically of highest quality, but are very expensive and tend to easily break, especially of square or rectangular type. Plastic and resin filters are much cheaper than glass and do not easily break – they are the top choice for graduated neutral density filters. Polyester filters are much thinner than glass or resin and are of very high quality, but are prone to scratches and hence not very practical on the field. Polycarbonate filters are very tough, scratch-resistant and are a good alternative to plastic/resin filters. For best results, I recommend using glass vs resin filters.
過濾器可以由玻璃,塑料,樹脂,聚酯和聚碳酸酯材料製成。玻璃過濾器通常具有最高質量,但是非常昂貴並且易於破裂,尤其是方形或矩形類型。塑料和樹脂過濾器比玻璃便宜得多,不易破碎 - 它們是漸變中性密度過濾器的首選。聚酯過濾器比玻璃或樹脂薄得多,質量非常高,但容易劃傷,因此在現場不太實用。聚碳酸酯過濾器非常堅韌,耐刮擦,是塑料/樹脂過濾器的良好替代品。為獲得最佳效果,我建議使用玻璃與樹脂過濾器。

6) Step-Up / Step-Down Rings
小轉大/大轉小 轉接環

Because filters can be expensive, it is much cheaper to buy a single standard filter (for example 77mm) and buy step-up rings for lenses that have smaller filter threads. Step-down rings can cause vignetting and other problems, so always try to use step-up rings instead. You can buy step-up rings for both circular and square filter holder systems in various sizes.
由於過濾器價格昂貴,購買單個標準過濾器(例如77毫米)並為具有較小過濾器螺紋的鏡片購買小轉大轉接環要便宜得多。大轉小轉接環會導致暈影和其他問題,因此請始終嘗試使用小轉大轉接環。您可以購買各種尺寸的圓形和方形過濾器支架系統的小轉大轉接環。

GrinLab Team